First, the content material summary:
To test the understanding of the candidates with the types of risk elements and mechanical intrinsic security requirements of major tools and places during the produce and use of equipment.
Second, the key points, challenging factors:
(1) Understand the primary categories of mechanical products;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical design and the type of safety gadget of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler area, surroundings compressor train station, gas station, air station, acetylene station dangerous point and general safety technology administration requirements.
Third, the content points out:
Machinery is a device that is assembled by a number of interconnected parts and can perform certain functions. During the operation of the mechanical tools, at least some of the comparative movements are produced regarding to certain guidelines. The comprehensive mechanical device contains a prime mover, a control and control program, a transmitting mechanism, a support device and an actuator.
Machinery is an essential products in modern creation and life. While getting high performance, swiftness and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical damage such as impact, extrusion, slicing and bearing various other nonmechanical hazards such as electric surprise, sound and high heat during its produce, operation and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and utilization of machinery, from various dangerous factors. Mechanical security contains two aspects of the safety of mechanical product processing and the safety of mechanical equipment.
1.1, mechanical product manufacturing safety
(1) Primary groups of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary products of the equipment sector are as follows:
(1) Agricultural machinery: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting equipment, etc.
(2) Heavy mining machinery: metallurgical equipment, mining equipment, lifting machinery, launching and unloading machinery, industrial and mining vehicles, cement tools, etc.
(3) Construction equipment: forklifts, earthmoving equipment, compaction machinery, concrete machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air flow conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding devices, home appliances, etc.
(6) Machine equipment: metal reducing machine equipment, forging machines, foundry machinery, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Automobiles: trucks, street buses, vehicles, modified cars, motorbikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automated equipment, electric equipment, optical instruments, component analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electric devices, audio-visual devices, cameras, etc.
(9) Simple equipment: bearings, hydraulic parts, seals, powder metallurgy products, regular fasteners, industrial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metal packaging products, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, surroundings pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Other machinery.
The main products of the non-mechanical industry include railway equipment, construction equipment, textile equipment, light industrial equipment, and maritime equipment.
(2) Mechanical safety style and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Protection style minimizes risk. Mechanical security design refers to the correct shape and comparative placement from the part materials to the part in the mechanical style stage, from limiting the working drive, the quality and swiftness of the moving parts to reducing sound and vibration, using intrinsic basic safety technology and power source, applying zero The theory of forced mechanical action between parts, mixed with ergonomic principles and other procedures, avoids or decreases the risk by selecting appropriate style structures; it can also improve the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the apparatus and Methods such as changes and maintenance outside the risk zone to prevent or decrease the risk.
Inbuilt safety is usually a mechanical safety method that is certainly used by mechanical designers to take measures to eliminate mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic basic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions simply by using this technology. It can satisfy the safety requirements of the machine itself when executing predetermined functions of the machine under established circumstances without using other basic safety safety measures. These include: avoiding sharpened sides, razor-sharp edges and bulges; ensuring adequate protection distances; determining limitations on physical quantities; using intrinsically secure procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a enough safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Basic safety of components and materials
Materials, fuels, and materials used to make machinery need to not endanger the security or wellness of workers during make use of. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile strength, shear power, impact strength, yield limit, etc., should meet up with the load requirements for performing the designed function; the materials should become able to withstand the predetermined environmental conditions, such as corrosion resistance, maturing level of resistance, and level of resistance. The capability to wear; the materials should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the material from being uneven credited to unreasonable process style, and generate residual stress; at the same time, avoid using harmful materials or substances, and should prevent the machinery itself or due to make use of. The risk of fireplace and explosion from gases, fluids, dirt, vapors or other chemicals produced by specific components.
4) Fulfilling security ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the safety man-machine engineering principle is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space layout, etc., enhancing the operability and reliability of mechanical devices, and producing the operator’s physical power Intake and psychological stress are reduced, thus reducing functional errors.
5) Safety concepts for developing control systems
During the use of equipment, the typical harmful conditions are: unintended start, out of control of speed modify, movement can easily not stop, moving mechanised parts or workpieces fall off, the function of safety devices is definitely clogged. The style of the control system should consider into account the working settings of the numerous procedures or the use of fault display gadgets to ensure that the owner can deal with them safely.
6) Prevent the dangers of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Devices that make use of pneumatic, hydraulic, heat, and other products must be designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with animal discharge of these energies.
Fundamental knowledge of mechanical safety production
First, the content material summary: